With the solar inverter market expanding at a fast price based on data from International Power Agency (IEA), it is vital that developers be able to design their systems much faster to meet the market’s requirements. However, the high voltages of these kinds of systems call for additional care in part choice and also system style to establish devices that operate securely. With system voltages of 1,000 VRMS as well as 5 V microcontrollers (MCUs) coexisting in solar-inverter systems, seclusion between the high- and low-voltage sides is a given. The engineer’s selection of the right electronic isolators can aid ensure the stability of these systems.
Number 1 reveals a simplified system block diagram of a transformerless grid-tied solar power conversion system The solar energy is collected by a photovoltaic (PV) panel and also processed by post-stage DC/DC and DC/AC converters. The DC/DC converter executes optimum power-point tracking (MPPT) of the solar power. The DC/AC inverter converts DC power to A/C power for interfacing to an energy grid.
A control component processes the comments signals from the voltage and also present sensors, and also supplies the best series as well as frequency of pulse-width regulated (PWM) control signals to the shielded gate bipolar transistors (IGBT)/ silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET entrance vehicle drivers to manage the voltages as well as currents of the power converters. The voltage and also current guidelines are intended to understand MPPT and also power-flow control to the grids. The control component user interfaces with the remainder of the control network with common interaction interfaces such as RS-485, control area network (CONTAINER) or commercial Ethernet.
In addition, the control component has components that are accessible to humans; for example, the adapters of the interactive user interface. Adequate security seclusion is needed between these exposed parts and also the high-voltage circuits (wiring linked to the DC buses and also energy grids). Isolated gate chauffeurs, separated voltage amplifiers and also current-sense amplifiers can achieve this seclusion. In Figure 1, which reveals a human-accessible control component, the input side of the separated entrance chauffeurs and the input side of the separated amplifiers are referenced to ground, which is safety-isolated from the high-voltage systems. Number 2 demonstrates how to introduce added isolation between the control module and also communication interface.
The International Electrotechnical Payment (IEC) 62109-1 is a safety and security standard for solar power converters. This standard defines the minimum requirements for the layout and manufacture of power-conversion tools (PCE) for defense versus electric shock, energy, fire, mechanical and other threats. Just how do you pick the ideal isolator to deal with the seclusion needs stipulated by the IEC62109-1 requirement? Here’s an easy six-step process that you can comply with.
Step 1: Identify the isolators present in the system and identify if each needs practical, fundamental or strengthened isolation. Safety and security isolation is possible via either 2 fundamental isolators in a collection or one enhanced isolator. In Figure 1, the separated gate drivers, and also isolated voltage and also current-sensing circuits both need to support reinforced isolation. In Number 2, the electronic isolator needs to support enhanced seclusion since the separated gate drivers and amplifiers are referenced to DC–, as well as just practical isolations are carried out.
Step 2: Establish the system voltage. System voltages for PV and grid-tied circuits are defined separately. For PV circuits, the system voltage is the open circuit voltage of the PV panels. For grid-tied circuits, the system voltage relies on the earthing scheme. A three-phase 400 VRMS Terra Neutral (TN) grid voltage that is neutral-earthed has a system voltage of 230 VRMS. Interpolation of the system voltage is not allowed for the grid-tied circuits; hence, you will need to use the next-higher system voltage. For instance, a system voltage of 230VRMS is treated as a 300VRMS based on IEC62109-1. A three-phase 480VRMS corner-earthed system has a system voltage of 480VRMS.
Step 3: Establish the need for short-term overvoltage and also impulse/surge voltage for every isolator according to the IEC62109-1 standard. You can establish the momentary voltage and also impulse voltage requirement based on the pre-determined system voltages and overvoltage group while following the policies defined in IEC62109-1. For enhanced isolation, you will certainly need to utilize the next-higher degree of impulse voltage while doubling the momentary overvoltage need.
Step 4: Figure out the clearance called for from every isolator used in the layout. You can derive the clearance based on the impulse voltage and also temporary overvoltage, as established symphonious 4 as well as the air pollution degree while complying with the regulations defined in IEC62109-1. For strengthened seclusion, you will certainly require to utilize the next-higher impulse voltage and also 1.6 times the overvoltage. You can also check out power supplies and converters
Step 5: Determine the working voltage (both height and also RMS) based on the actual operating problem of the isolator. Establishing the functioning voltage is not simple, and depends upon the system voltage, system setup as well as operation settings. For instance, the functioning voltage of the DC/AC inverter depends on the modulation index. A higher inflection index implies a higher working voltage. You can treat the DC bus voltage as the working voltage for the worst-case factor to consider.
Step6: Determine creepage based on the functioning voltage according to IEC62109-1. You can identify the creepage based upon the functioning voltage, air pollution level as well as bundle mold and mildew substance product while following the policies defined in IEC 62109-1. For strengthened isolation, you will certainly need to double the creepage requirement.
When you select an isolator, make sure that it satisfies the rising voltage, temporary overvoltage, functioning voltage, creepage as well as clearance requirements obtained in the coming before steps. With these six actions checked off, you need to remain in a good setting to design a durable solar-inverter system. Have a look at TI referral makes connecting to solar inverters to get started quickly on your system design.